In 1937, Cummings at age 75 stepped down as Head of the Department of Archaeology and his 33-year-old former student, Emil Haury, took over. One of Haury's first acts as Department Head was to ratify the breadth that Cummings had been developing in the Department of Archaeology by changing the name to the Department of Anthropology. Though Cummings worked diligently during his 22 years to establish a "program in anthropology," full success eluded him, in part because of the severe financial problems of the Depression that plagued the final years of his tenure. Haury first made the argument in 1937-38 that a doctoral program was not possible without a larger faculty, much improved library holdings, and better equipment. To accelerate that change to include social anthropology and applied anthropology, he hired Edward H. Spicer in 1939, and Spicer provided leadership for the broadened ethnology field until his retirement in 1978. It took a full decade of building these resources and adding personnel before Haury was willing and able to expand the graduate program to include the doctorate degree in 1948-49. The first two doctorates were awarded to Charles C. Di Peso and Joe Ben Wheat in 1953.
In the related areas of curriculum and faculty development, Haury made gains, but progress was slow. In biological anthropology, John Provinse left the year before Haury became Head, and Haury immediately replaced him with Norman E. Gabel and biological anthropology became a permanent part of the curriculum from then on. There was considerable turnover in personnel until 1958-59 when Haury convinced Frederick S. Hulse to leave the University of Washington and provide Arizona with the vigorous leadership that the biological anthropology subfield needed.
Establishing linguistics proved to be much more difficult. Haury was unable to follow-up on the early courses offered by T. T. Waterman in 1927-28 until 1939-40 when he enlisted the assistance of William Kurath of the German Department, who was collaborating with Spicer on the study of the O'Odham language. Kurath's death in 1949 led to a series of short-term solutions that continued to depend on colleagues in the German and French departments. It was not until 1960-61 that Haury could stabilize the linguistics program by hiring Edward P. Dozier to set the tone for future growth in the subfield.
Haury promoted the importance of applied anthropology from the beginning and in 1952 assisted William H. Kelly in founding the Bureau of Ethnic Research, now the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology. In 1940-41, he noted the need for training in museology, but it was fourteen years before the first course in museum studies was offered in 1953-54 by archaeologist E. B. Danson, who resigned at the end of the 1955-56 academic year to become Director of the Museum of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff. Another decade was to pass before museum studies became a regular part of the curriculum.
Haury fostered the already strong ties with the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research. In 1952-53 he obtained a grant from the Research Corporation to build the Radiocarbon Laboratory. He contributed directly to the Development of the Geochronology Laboratories, the Arid Lands Program, and the University of Arizona Press. One of the first efforts of the University Press involved the establishment of the Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona series, the 71st volume of which should be published during 2007. Many of these publications (almost a third) are based on master's theses and doctoral dissertations submitted to the Department.
Haury commented as early as 1938-39 on the need for a permanent field training facility in archaeology, but it was not until after World War II when he was able to establish the camp at Point of Pines that served as the site for the Archaeological Field School for 15 years. In 1963, Raymond H. Thompson moved the Field School to Grasshopper on the Ft. Apache Reservation where it remained for almost three decades, directed in succession by William A. Longacre and J. Jefferson Reid. Subsequently, the Field School was located in Sitgreaves National Forest near Pinedale, Arizona, and was directed by Barbara J. Mills.
When Haury turned the Department over to its third Head, Raymond H. Thompson, in 1964-65, he had the satisfaction of having presided over the conversion of the well-known but fledgling "program in anthropology" that Cummings had turned over to him 27 years earlier into a fully developed Department of Anthropology of national stature (see Rankings below). Whereas Haury and Cummings had to work in a world of shortages, Thompson was faced with a different problem, the management of abundance.