Thursday, March 21, 2019
Title: Clovis: where were they from, where did they go, where do they fit in the process of peopling of the Western Hemisphere?
Abstract: I will present evidence, opinion, and arguments for his alternatives for three current issues of the anthropology of the peopling of the Western Hemisphere. First, it will be argued that Beringia is probably not the sole source of people in the Western Hemisphere and probably not the location where PaleoAmericans got biologically isolated during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM). Alternatives for the biological sources of PaleoAmerinds will be offered, as well as the contentious issue of “European” genes in pre-contact Americas, or not, with a critique of recent discussion of a-DNA evidence from the Anzick child. Second, there can be no doubt that “Clovis” was the dominant archaeological culture group of the Younger Dryas (YD), but one that was arguably late on the scene, and co-occurred with others. The distributions of these “others” will be illustrated along with distributions of “Clovis” using GIS data sets compiled since the mid-1990s. These data include the isolated finds of the Paleoindian database of the Americas (PIDBA), along with robust site location and associated radiocarbon databases. These data can be used to see where we might be finding “proto-Clovis” already and where we see different groups interacting archaeologically. Finally, an often overlooked fact is that the Clovis school of knapping - and the assumed bio-linguistic groups within which it was embedded - was parent to several subsequent daughter groups, some of which evolved well into the Holocene in the east, allowing for evaluation on which culture groups known just before and after contact had more (or less) Clovis heritage.